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Appendix C

\"Essay: years of un peacekeeping effortsI want an understanding that will help my mission and make it successful\"

Kofi Annan

United Nations Secretary General

Kofi Atta Annan, current Secretary General of the United Nations, is a native of Ghana -- at the time of his birth, still a British colony called the Gold Coast. He was born April 8, 1938, in Kumasi, the descendant of a prominent family of paramount chieftains of the Fante people.. Annan began his education at a Ghanaian university, then completed a degree in economics at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minn. He pursued graduate studies in Geneva at the Institut Universitaire de Hautes Etudes Internationales. Again in the United States, Annan earned an M.S. in management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

By 1971, Annan had joined the United Nations.

His experience includes positions as Assistant Secretary General for Program Planning, Budget and Finance, head of human resources and security coordinator, director of the budget, chief of personnel for the High Commission for Refugees and administrative officer for the Economic Commission for Africa.

He was named Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping Operations on March 1, 1993. In the peacekeeping post he did, however, take on a number of delicate and complex jobs. He was sent to Iraq to negotiate the release of hostages and the safe transport of a half-million Asian workers who had become stranded in that area. As representative of the UN Secretary General in Bosnia., he negotiated his way among the four powers who had intervened in Bosnia -- the United States, Britain, France and Russia.

On the evening of December 13, 1996, Annan was named Secretary General of the United Nations -- the first black African to hold the job.

In the future, Annan will grapple with the problem of gaining support for the United Nations from the organisation\'s sceptics, especially the U.S. Congress.

Appendix D

Membership and Presidency of the Security Council in 1998

Month

Presidency

Membership Term Ends

January

France

Permanent Member

February

Gabon

31 December 1999

March

Gambia

31 December 1999

April

Japan

31 December 1998

May

Kenya

31 December 1998

June

Portugal

31 December 1998

July

Russian Federation

Permanent Member

August

Slovenia

31 December 1999

September

Sweden

31 December 1998

October

United Kingdom

Permanent Member

November

United States

Permanent Member

December

Bahrain

31 December 1999

Brazil

31 December 1999

China

Permanent Member

Costa Rica

31 December 1998

Appendix E

Essay: years of un peacekeeping efforts

The United Nations was established in the aftermath of a devastating war to help stabilize international relations and give peace a more secure foundation.

The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded five times to the United Nations and its organizations.

Appendix F

Country Profile

Iraq

General

Size:

437,072 sq. km

Location:

Middle East

Population:

21.4 million

Government:

Republic

Leader:

President Saddam Hussein

People

Languages

Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian

Major Religions

Muslim 97% (Shi\'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%

Ethnic groups

Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%

Growth rate

3.69%

Birth rate

43.07 births/1,000

Death rate

6.57 deaths/1,000

Fertility rate

6.41 children/woman

Male life expectancy

65

Female life expectancy

68

Infant mortality rate

60 deaths/1,000 live births

Economy

Labor force

4.4 million

Unemployment rate

N/A

Inflation Rate

N/A

Gross domestic product (total value of goods and services produced annually)

$41.1 billion (1995 est.)

Budget

N/A

Debt

$50.0 billion (1989)

Exports

N/A

Imports

N/A

Defense spending

N/A

Highways

45,554 km (1989)

AEssay: years of un peacekeeping effortsppendix G

Saddam Hussein

President of Iraq

1 Blitzkrieg (Ger.) – lightning war, traced back to WW II