Essay: years of un peacekeeping efforts → Реферат
As a result of UNICOM work the following data concerning Iraqi military arsenal were received.
UN verified as destroyed
UN believes may exist.
Launchers and launch pads
Munitions (filled and empty)
Equipment for production
Although the Al Hakam factory, capable of producing anthrax and botulinum toxin, was raised, these and other agents have not been accounted for.
The events that took place December 16, 1998 shocked the mankind. US and British forces launched a \"strong, sustained\" series of airstrikes against Iraq early Thursday, targeting military and security installations throughout the country. Pentagon1 sources said about 200 cruise missiles were fired from ships and manned fighter bombers in the first wave of what will be an \"open-ended\' attack, designed to degrade Iraq\'s ability to produce nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Clinton accused Hussein of failing to live up to his commitment to allow unrestricted access to UN weapons inspectors. This is how chief CNN International Correspondent Christiane Amanpour reported from a rooftop in downtown Baghdad: \"An orange plume of smoke wafted over the city after one of the loudest bursts.\" Allied missiles struck more than 50 separate targets\" during the first wave of bombing that began overnight on Wednesday.
The military strikes – which came at night – followed a roughly 14-month period during which Baghdad officials periodically said they would no longer cooperate with the weapons inspectors. During that time, Baghdad also repeatedly demanded that crippling international sanctions, imposed after Iraq\'s invasion of Kuwait prior to the Gulf War, be lifted. The most recent escalation in the ongoing weapons standoff came in early November. At that time, Western powers threatened military strikes against Iraq. The threat was removed on November 14, when Baghdad agreed to cooperate fully with the weapons inspectors. But, US and British officials warned Baghdad that future airstrikes could come without warning should Iraqi leadership again refuse to cooperate with UNSCOM. To back up their threat, Western powers left in place the military might they had positioned in the Persian Gulf, within striking distance of Iraq. It was that military weaponry that was used on Thursday to conduct the strikes against Iraq. A stray missile from the allied attack on Iraq crashed into a southwestern Iranian border city Khorramshahr causing no casualties but prompting a strong diplomatic protest from Tehran.
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Henry Shelton said the sites hit during the first bombing wave included weapons of mass destruction and barracks belonging to the Iraqi Republican Guard. US and British officials have said they will continue bombing Baghdad until they have achieved their goal which is not to destabilize the regime but to decrease his capacity to threaten his neighbours.
World community\'s response was not unanimous. Many Russian politicians expressed their negative attitude to the bombing. Boris Yeltzin met with Evgeni Primakov, Russian Prime-minister, Nikolai Bordyuzha, Security Council secretary and Anatoly Kvashnin, General Staff commander where he claimed that Russia would demand conducting the UN Security Council summit to consider the situation in Iraq. Egor Stroyev, Federation Council chairman said that the US and British bombardment of Iraq is a strike not on Iraq but on public opinion and above all on UNO. Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov expressed his point of view saying that military action ceasing would allow to renew the political process of Iraqi settlement. Moreover, he said that the report was made at the time when Iraqi leaders approved of their readiness to collaborate with UNSCOM. Russian Ambassador Yuli Vorontsov will return to Moscow for \"consultations\".
The only country that fully backed American and British bombing of Iraq was Japan. Keidzo Obutti, the Prime Minister of this country has already received acknowledgement from the US president. According to his opinion Iraq didn\'t fully cooperate with UN officials. Japan that is connected with the USA by economic and military union as well as strategic partnership always supports everything US does.
Tony Blair, the British prime minister is expected to be backed by the majority of deputies to the House of Commons. He said the attack, named Operation Desert Fox, was necessary because Hussein never intended to abide by his pledge to give unconditional access to UN inspectors trying to determine if Iraq has dismantled its biological, chemical and nuclear weapons programs. From morning some protesters-natives from Arab countries – Syria, Pakistan and Iraq – held demonstrations in Trafalgar Square and near prime minister\'s residence situated in Downing street, 10. British people also fully agree with their government decision. Russian position is discussed by mass media. Moscow is said to have too little assets to seriously affect the situation. Today \"Times\" wrote: \"Washington made it clear that the arguments of the country whose economic situation fully depends on financial assistance of Western countries won\'t stop him.
Paris is reserved in its comments connected with the Iraqi bombing. France always adhered to diplomatic crisis regulation.
NATO Ministers of Defense have gathered in Brussels to discuss their position regarding the situation in the Persian Gulf. Nobody have expressed their wish to participate in military actions.
The UN Security Council held a special debate Wednesday evening on the military action. Diplomats said the meeting of the 15-nation council would enable members to voice their views on the crisis, but no council action was expected in the form of a resolution or other decision. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan expressed regret the standoff had not been resolved diplomatically. Richard Butler, UNSCOM chairman, ordered UNSCOM staff out of Baghdad. The entire staff was evacuated before dawn on Wednesday.
Iraqi officials said at least 25 people had died and 75 were wounded in the Iraqi capital alone during two days of airstrikes.
The UNO, established to replace the existing League of Nations, faces very difficult situation in connection with Iraqi bombardment. The beginning of effective Iraqi resistance came with a rapidity which surprised us all, and we were perhaps psychologically unprepared for the sudden transition from peacemaking to fighting. Some say that Clinton wanted to delay the floor debate and vote on whether he should be impeached over his actions stemming from an affair with former White House intern Monica Lewinski. Some questioned America\'s moral right to bomb Iraq, while others demanded that this time the US do the job properly and get rid of Saddam Hussein.