Ринкова економіка → Курсова робота
State financial stimulation, orders and the purchases within the framework of the economic programs render appreciable and non-uniform influence on competitiveness of the separate companies, situation of branches, regions, of social groups and cause resistance what interests have appeared restrained. On state programming systems therefore constantly there is a versatile influence reflecting inconsistent interests of separate groups, public forces, political groups.
Let\'s consider the mechanism of state regulation on an example of politics of the prices.
Contrary to widespread at many to opinion, that in the countries of market economy money appearing occurs spontaneously, actually prices are object of constant attention and regulation on the part of the state. The prices are one of critical points economic and social - political life, where the group interests of the manufacturers and consumers, wholesale and retail dealers, trade unions and unions of the businessmen, exporters and importers collide. The prices mention interests everyone and, naturally, around of them there is a struggle in parties and parliaments, in government and on negotiation of the social partners, at the international meetings.
The influence on the prices serves to the global purposes of state regulation of economy, purposes of tactical and structural politics, struggle with inflation, amplification of national competitiveness in the world markets and mitigation of social intensity. The influence of state economic politics on other objects of regulation, in turn, is reflected in processes of formation of the prices.
The concrete actions in the field of the prices can have short-term or even the emergency purposes, which can in the given concrete moment not coincide with other purposes, but at the end they always serve of the general purpose of state regulation - optimisation of rates both proportions of economic development and stabilisation of social system
The classical political economy examined the prices, freely developing in the market, as the main element of the mechanism of maintenance of balance between a supply and demand. However actually there was never of ideal general and complete freedom money appearing. All question in a degree and forms of restriction of free game of the prices. Even if to abstract from opportunities of arrangement of the manufacturers and sellers, during all history of capitalism it is possible to look after influence of the state on the prices.
The tariffs for services of state iron roads, mail, telegraph, sale of the foodstuffs from state stocks per poor harvest years, customs politics and indirect taxation essential image influencing on the internal price, - here the not complete list of measures of state price control for last 100 - 150 years.
The first world war which has begun after it depression and crisis, have served as the moment of changes in a history of state price control. K. Muller wrote in this occasion, that the political and economic shocks in the state and society have caused comprehension that in interests of the best functioning of a economy, more uniform distribution and avoidance of danger of revolutionary revolution it would be expedient, that the state has undertaken care of regulation of economic process and maintenance of the fair prices.
Attempts to adjust the prices in conditions of inflation and crisis by the foreign trade politics have appeared insolvent. To the middle of the 30-th years in many advanced countries with market economy the laws giving to the state powers on influence on the prices, down to their freezing were accepted, and the state measures on influence on the prices become a component of state regulation of economy.
The state measures on price control can carry legislative, administrative and judicial character. The laws, accepted by parliaments, create a legal basis of the relations between the economic subjects, and also between them and state in sphere money appearing. The complex of these laws represents the price right entering by a component into civil law. On the basis of this right the authorised state bodies carry out administrative activity on price control. In case of infringement of the laws guilty can be involved in the judicial responsibility.
Party fractions independent deputies bring in the administration bills of the prices, as well as on other economic questions, to parliaments or government, is direct measures on price control carry out the ministries of economy, finance and central bank. In a number of the countries there are ministries of trade, agriculture. They also render influence on money appearing. In many countries at the end of 60 - in the 70-th years ministry advice under the prices was created, they have is observant - consultative functions.
In each country at government or its separate bodies there are expert committees, where the known experts, and advice, in which they meeting the representatives of trade unions, unions of the peasants, dealers, businessmen and representatives of state bodies enter; the committees are called to advise state bodies on the prices and to express the opinion concerning the price administration bills.
Let\'s consider state price control in a historical and logic sequence.
The supervision over the prices is the primary form of state activity in this area. The business not only that from it began state price control; now supervision over the prices forms the basis, on which all state actions in this area are based. In supervision over the prices the central statistical managements are engaged. The independent researches of movement of the prices frequently will carry out the research centres of trade unions special commissions under orders of a management of parties, international organisations.
Overall objective of supervision behind the prices on the part of state bodies and social partners - change of growth of cost of life for definition of an index of annual nominal increase of wages and pensions, and also for finding - out of influence of a rise in prices on production costs and national competitiveness. The state can affect the prices, entering or cancelling quantitative and customs restrictions in foreign trade, entering in integration unions, changing the registration rate, varying the taxes, carrying out a currency issue etc. The indirect influence on the prices is rendered, in essence, by(with) all state regulating actions(shares), with what the purposes they did not serve.
The state intervention in process money appearing is carried out by the overestimate, authorised by governmental bodies, of production costs through inclusion in the cost price overestimated amortisation and deductions in other funds. As a result of it in the whole branches there is a situation, when \" the costs prop up the price \", i.e. settlement (instead of valid) the production costs appear at all enterprises of branch as a result of the privileges, announced by government, are so high, that the increase of the prices becomes itself by the understood phenomenon, and as the privileges are distributed to all branch, internal branches the competition in conditions of a favourable conjuncture can not be a sufficient obstacle for a rise in prices.