Ринкова економіка → Курсова робота
The sizes of these charges essentially influence scales of demand and size of the investments. During crises and depressions the charges of the state budget on the economic purposes, as a rule, grow, and in time when of slowing conjuncture - are reduced.
The charges on crediting of export, insurance of the export credits and taken out capital financed from the budget, stimulate export and in the long-term plan improve payment balance, open for a national economy the new foreign markets, promote strengthening of national currency, maintenance of deliveries on a home market of the necessary goods because of a boundary. It is the external economic aspect of politics of the budget charges.
The effectiveness of state regulation of economy with the help of the budget charges depends, first, on the relative sizes of the spent sums; secondly, from structure of these charges; thirdly, from efficiency of use of each unit of spent means.
The main tools of mobilisation of financial assets for a covering of the state charges are the taxes. They also are widely used for influence on activity of the subjects of economy. It is a special role of the taxes. But main role of the taxes - regulating. The state regulation through the taxes depends in a decisive degree on a choice of tax system, and also from kinds and sizes of tax privileges.
The taxes in state regulation of economy play a double role: on the one hand, it is the main source of financing of the state charges, the material basis of budget politics, on the other hand, is the tool of regulation. A task of state budget bodies - not simply to impose with the taxes those or other sources of receipt of means and to create the adjusted mechanism of influence on economic behaviour of the legal and physical persons is thin. For this purpose temporarily or selectively given tax discounts, delay of payment of the taxes are used.
The special place among means of state regulation of economy which is carried out through the taxes, plays accelerated amortisation of a fixed capital and connected with it(him) formation(education) and realisation of the latent reserves carried out within the framework of the sanctions of the ministries of the finance.
Accelerated amortisation of a fixed capital in modern conditions is by the main means of stimulation of accumulation, structural changes in economy and important tool of influence on an economic cycle - the employment. Essence it in a separation of physical process amortisation of machines, equipment, buildings and structures from the production costs of carry of cost of material carriers of a fixed capital on the made goods and services. Changing the rates and order amortisation, the state regulating bodies determine that part of the clean profit, which can be released from the taxes by inclusion in production costs and then is listed in amortisation fund for financing in the further new capital investments.
At check of correctness of payment of the tax from the profit the tax inspectors agree with accounting of production costs or services only if the amortisation deductions were made in conformity with norms solved by the ministry of the finance. The size of the balance profit, rate and size of the tax, and also paid dividends depends on it.
The variation of norms accelerated amortisation of a fixed capital is widely used in all advanced countries as a means of state tactical and structural politics, and also for stimulation of scientific researches and introduction of their results, for financing nature protection of measures. The effect of a variation of norms of amortisation deductions is swept up within a favourable conjuncture, i.e. in the periods of slowing and crises the effectiveness of amortisation politics weakens. The worse conjuncture, the more difficult & is to realise profit, it is less than opportunities for self-financing, and the amortisation privileges given by the state, becomes less attractive stimulus for the private investments. The privileges on accelerated amortisation are equivalent to reduction of receipts from the taxes from profits in the state budget. Result can be increase of other taxes or growth state duty.
The state capital investments are carried out substantially in public sector of economy playing a major role in state regulation of economy. It is simultaneously object and tool of influence on a private enterprise.
The public sector represents a complex of economic objects, wholly or partially belonging to the central and local state bodies. The public sector existed in many countries long before development of capitalism, including mail, partially transport service, manufacturing of the weapon etc. On a measure forming systems of state regulation of economy the state built, redeemed at the private proprietors economic objects, mainly in sphere of an infrastructure, heavy industry, which functioning was always favourably and it is necessary for a national economy, but not always it is favourable from the point of view of the private capital.
In one country the public sector has arisen basically as a result of nationalisation of a number of branches and enterprises (in France, Italy, Great Britain, Austria), in others the state built or got ruined economic objects (in USA, Sweden, Japan). In the first group of the countries the share of public sector in national riches is higher, than in second.
Significant parts of public sector are objects of an infrastructure, in the majority unprofitable. Other part - the state enterprises in raw and power branches, where are required the large investments, and turnover of the capital slow. Profitability of state-owned firms, as a rule, below, than private. A part of public sector is packages of the actions of the mixed private-state companies.
The existence in conditions of a market economy of sectors, which in the activity is guided by principles a little bit distinguished from principles of private concerns, allows using public sector for the decision of nation-wide economic tasks, increasing money of a private enterprise.
The exclusive profit, and frequently and profit in general, is not the paramount purpose of activity of public sector in an infrastructure, power, raw branches, НИОКР, in preparation and retraining of the staff, in the field of protection of an environment, as high profits nobody requires of these spheres, and the losses become covered from the budget. Therefore public sector has become the supplier of cheap services (in particular, transport, mail-telegraphic), electric power and raw material, reducing, thus, costs in private sector.
The public sector as a means of state regulation of economy is actively used. So, in conditions of deterioration of a conjuncture, the depressions or crisis, when the private capital investments are reduced, investment in public sector, as a rule, grow. Thus, the governmental bodies aspire to counteract recession of manufacture and growth of unemployment. The public sector plays an appreciable role in state structural politics. The state creates new objects or expands and reconstructs old in those spheres of activity, branches or regions, where the private capital connected is not enough. So, the public sector plays a huge role in economy, preparation and retraining of the staff. The state-owned firms are engaged also in foreign trade, export of the capital abroad, frequently acting by the pioneers in introduction of the national capital in any country (for example, participation of the German concern \" Volkswagen \", federal taking place in property federal and ground governments, in motor industry of Czech).