Ринкова економіка → Курсова робота
So, it was the ideal picture of dependence of state regulation of economy from economic interests, mechanism of this dependence and feedback. In real life weight of rejections from model - is observed there is a struggle between separate groups of interests for influence on bodies of regulation, a wide circulation has received these method, the facts of corruption in bodies of state economic politics in the various countries are known. But the mechanism of state regulation of economy functions all the same not on rejections, but by rules.
The objects of state regulation of economy are spheres, branches, regions, and also situations, phenomenon and condition of social economic life of the country, where have arisen or there can be difficulties, problems not permitted automatically or permitted in a long-term future, while the removal of these problems urgently is necessary for normal functioning of economy and maintenance of social stability.
The basic objects of state regulation of economy is:
Sectors, branch and regional structure of a economy;
Conditions of accumulation of the capital;
The money reference(manipulation);
Research also is skilled - design works having by the purpose development and realisation of scientific ideas;
Conditions of a competition;
The social attitudes(relations), including the attitudes(relation) between the employers and working on hiring, and also social maintenance;
Preparation and retraining of the staff;
Foreign economic relations.
Obviously, the transferred objects can carry completely various character, they cover macroeconomic processes - economic cycle, accumulation of the capital in scales of the country, separate branches, territorial complexes and even the relation between the subjects – the condition of a competition, the relations between trade unions and associations of the businessmen, between state regulating bodies.
Let\'s consider major of them.
The essence of state anticyclic politics, or regulation of an economic conjuncture, is, that during crises and depressions should stimulate demand for the goods and services, capital investments and employment. For this purpose the additional financial privileges are given to the private capital, the state charges and investments are increased. In conditions of long and rough rise in a national economy there can be dangerous phenomena – using of commodity stocks, growth of import and deterioration of payment balance, excess of demand on a labour above the offer and from here unreasonable growth of wages and prices. In such situation, the task of state regulation of economy - to brake growth of demand, capital investments and manufacture whenever possible to reduce overproduction of the goods and less products of the capitals and, thus, to reduce depth and duration of possible recession of manufacture, investments and employment in the future.
The state regulation of economy in the field of branch and territorial structure also is carried out through financial stimulus and state capital investments, which provide privileged conditions to separate branches and regions. In one cases the support appears to branches and territorial units which are taking place in a condition of long crisis; in others - the development of new branches and kinds of manufactures - carriers of scientific and technical progress called to result to progressive structural changes inside branches, between branches and in all a national economy as a whole. The increase of its efficiency and competitiveness is encouraged. At the same time can be the stopping of excessive concentration of manufacture arranged on.
Major object of state economy regulation is the accumulation of the capital. Manufacture, assignment and capitalisation of the profit always serve an overall objective of economic activity in market economy, therefore state economic politics of encouragement of accumulation first of all corresponds to economic interests to the subjects of an economy. Simultaneously state regulation of accumulation is also used to serve also to other objects of state economy regulation. Creating additional stimulus and opportunities in different time to all investors or their separate groups on branches and territories the regulating bodies influence a business cycle and structure.
The regulation of employment is maintenance normal from the point of view of market economy of parity between a supply and demand of a labour. Parity should satisfy requirement of economy for the qualified and disciplined workers, which wages serve for them a sufficient motivation to work. However parity between a supply and demand should not conduct to excessive growth of wages, which can be reflected negative in national competitiveness. The sharp decrease of employment is undesirable also, it conducts to increase the army of the unemployed, decrease of consumer demanded, tax receipts, growth of the charges on the grants and, most important, it is dangerous by social consequences.
Constant object of attention of state regulating bodies is money manipulation. The basic orientation of regulation of money manipulation - struggle with inflation representing serious danger to economy. The regulation of money manipulation influences and other objects - condition of accumulation, price, social relations.
The condition of payment balance is an objective parameter of economic health of the country. In all countries with a market economy the state constantly carries out operative and strategic regulation of payment balance by influence on export and import, movement of the capital, increase and downturn of rates of national currencies, marketcontractual politics and participation in the international economic integration.
One more of the main objects of regulation - price. Changes and structure of the prices reflect a condition of economy. At the same time prices strongly influence structure of economy, condition of capital investments, stability of national currency, social atmosphere.
The state regulating instances aspire to influence and other objects of state regulation of economy, for example, to interest private concerns in development of scientific researches and introduction of their results, in export of goods, capitals, both saved knowledge and experience are studied and the laws on observance of rules of a competition, social protection, protection of an environment are improved.
The objects of state economy regulation of differ depending on a level of tasks, solved by them. It is the following hierarchical levels: a level of firm; region; branches; sectors of economy (industry, agriculture, service); economy as a whole (economic cycle; the money manipulation; the prices); global (social relations, ecology); economic-political relations with foreign countries, integration processes).