Ринкова економіка → Курсова робота
It is the first communication line of economic interests with the state device regulating an economy.
The carriers of economic interests are incorporated in the advanced countries of a market economy in numerous unions, association: it is trade unions, unions of the businessmen, farmers, various dealers, students, brokers and . Item. Some of these unions total millions members (trade unions, for example), others play a huge role in a national economy because of the capitals, represented by them, (unions of the businessmen, bank establishments, trade chambers). There are also absolutely insignificant associations, for example, association of the physical and legal persons interested in a privatisation of the concrete ground area, belonging to municipality. Such associations are expressers of economic interests.
Most powerful expressers of economic interests are unions of the businessmen and trade unions. They carry out the own concepts of social economic politics, aspiring to render the maximal influence on state economic politics. At expressers of economic interests there are printed editions, significant financial resources, centres of training of personnel and public relations. The unions of the businessmen and trade unions are constructed to a branch and territorial attribute, all local and branch unions hierarchically are subordinated to the national centres, which, in turn, enter into the international, regional and global associations.
The recommendations, advises, memorandums, various channels of influence these expressers of economic interests on bodies of state economic regulation is the second communication line of economic interests with state economic politics.
Expressers of social economic, political, religious, cultural, ecological, specific regional interests are the political parties, which frequently work under a banner of national interests.
To carry out in life the program of state economic politics there will be a subject of state economic regulation - executors of economic interests. It is the main, third line of transformation of private-individual economic interests in state economic politics.
The executors of economic interests - subjects of state regulation of economy - are the bodies of three branches of authorities constructed by a hierarchical principal, and also central national bank. The tendency of amplification of a role of the central bodies of authority among the subjects of state economic regulation is appreciable more and more independent becomes the executive bodies.
Interesting from the point of view of study of the mechanism of state regulation of economy the merge of the subjects of state and private economic politics and occurrence is as a result of it of new regulating bodies which are not entered theoretically in the classical circuit of parliamentary or presidential republic. For example, the body from the representatives of unions of the businessmen, trade unions and executive authority for regulation of the tariff agreements between the businessmen and workers are created. The committees, advice on maintenance or development of separate branches from the representatives of the ministry of economy and branch unions of the businessmen are organised. Similar advice is created for realisation of the state regional programs. The basic part of such bodies formally carries out advisory activity, but actually decisive image influence state economic politics. Various advice of the experts concerns to such bodies at government, ministries of economy, finance, social maintenance, their separate management, central bank, governments of state iron roads, mail and telegraph etc.
Other group of government-private regulation of economy is advice on spheres of activity, for example, scientific and technical, army-industrial, on regional politics, on internal waterways of the messages, on vocational training. As against branch advice in them the representatives of the most different branches, banks, various funds, associations of the engineers, trade unions, public movements enter alongside with the employees of governmental bodies and experts. Their recommendations concern the basic orientation of state economic politics, its directions of an expenditure of means from the budget and various funds.
It is the fourth communication line between carriers of economic interests and state regulation of economy: carriers (in this case interested firms) – expressers (unions of the businessmen) – advice at state regulating bodies. On this line there is an updating of interests of a private enterprise to interest others social, professional, public (for example, ecological) groups.
There are numerous opportunities of influence of carriers and expressers of economic interests on state economic politics: through bodies of the mass information, demonstration and manifestation, tax of the signatures, manipulation in courts - from local up to international, campaign of civil disobedience.
Feedback between state regulation of economy and carriers of economic interests rather rigid.
First, the success of state regulation of economy is shown in rates of growth, improvement of structure of economy, growth of employment, healthy payment balance, decrease of rates of inflation, increase of a vital level.
Secondly, the successes of state regulation of economy are reflected in parameters which are not always given in to exact quantitative measurement: in a level of social intensity (strike, demonstrations, various performances), estimation of state regulation of economy by mass media, condition of an environment, quality of life in cities.
Thirdly, carriers of economic interests are direct and through the associations supported or do not support government. The loss of trust of the voters and associations of economic interests to a ruling party or parties is a main line of a feedback between state economic politics and carriers of economic interests.
The bodies of state regulation of economy can not afford to find out reaction of carriers of economic interests to a general orientation and concrete measures of state economic politics during choices, to wait, when the discontent by an economic situation starts. The extreme forms (strike, flight of the capital). The operative information, whenever possible authentic forecasts the behaviour of the economic subjects is necessary to governmental bodies in case of realisation of this or that measure of state regulation of economy. For this purpose there is a fulfilled mechanism as biographical interrogations. Through a biographical method the efficiency of toolkit budget, a special way of regulation, influence of state purchases and orders, investments in public sector are investigated. This method has turned out to be the working tool of state regulation of economy ensuring a feedback between regulating bodies and carriers of economic interests.