Ринкова економіка → Курсова робота
The 20 centuries appeared to be a stage of macroeconomy. The large system is not only set of small subsystems - firms and branches, but also a new quality. Its actions are operated by other mechanisms. Macrosystem can not be described by categories of microsystem (price, profit, competition etc.). New techniques and tools here are necessary.
The Macroeconomic analysis becomes a basis of state politics, development of the programs, selective (\"dot\") methods of influence. But macroeconomic is knowledge that works not far from business. You see such formulas, as the return dependence between inflation and unemployment in scale of a society, or between bank percent and rates of growth of a total product, between growth of inflation and downturn of the exchange rate of domestic currency is necessary to know, even to expect changes of a conjuncture and probable general idea of government, direction of state regulation of economy.
\" Most of all laws were created in vague times of republic... \"
The state regulation of economy has a long history. The practice here outstrips the theory. During early capitalism in Europe there was a centralised control above the prices, quality of the goods and services, interest rates and foreign trade.
17 century – is a century of the pioneers of the normative economic theory - wrote that only detailed management on the part of government is capable to supply the order in economic sphere. They saw in a state management a means of ensuring social validity.
With transition to capitalism and appearing of free competition, many aspects of \"pioneers\" theory were destroyed. The approach of people who based a classical economy (18 centuries), limiting state intervention in economic life, has the historical explanation. You see in that period economy was ruled by the market and freedom of a choice. In economic sense freedom assumes two main components: the right, to a private property protected by the law and independence of acceptance of the decisions. In 18 - 19 centuries the economic role of the state was reduced, basically, to protection of these primary rights. The XX century was market by almost universal strengthening of economic presence of the state.
From the second half of 19 century national manufacture has achieved unprecedented scales. The end of the century is connected with explosion, jump in scientific - technical development and appearance of new branches. All these circumstance needed requirement for co-ordination, for maintenance of proportions on macro-level, for anticyclic regulation.
The amplification of state regulation was dictated by the purposes of preparation to wars, their conducting, maintenance of war-protection. The whole system of measures including compulsory movements system (GERMANY), protectionism (Japan) was developed. The army-industrial complexes closely connected to government were formed.
The state regulation of economy was necessary for realisation of social politics, for general strategy socialisation in a broad sense. Collective consumption or satisfaction of public requirements (public health services, education, support deprived and others) are impossible without use of state levers and organisations.
And, at last, it would be desirable to emphasise, meaning day today\'s, need for state support and sometimes organisations of fundamental scientific researches, and also protection of environment.
The state regulation, thus, is caused by occurrence of new economic needs, with which the market on the nature can not consult.
And, though the similar regulation in modern market economy is carried out in much smaller scales, than in administrative - command system, nevertheless here economic role of the state is great, is special in comparison with the system of a free competition.
The state regulation of economy in conditions of a market economy represents system of typical measures of legislative, executive and supervising character which is carried out by competent official bodies and public organisations with the purposes of stabilisation and the adaptation existing socially - of economic system, and conditions.
In the process of development of a market economy the economic and social problems became aggravated, they could not be solved automatically on the basis of a private property. The necessity of the significant investments, has appeared necessary for continuation of reproduction in national scales; branch and social crises, mass unemployment, the infringements in the money manipulation become aggravated competition in the global markets required state economic politics.
Theoretically concept state economic wider than concept of state regulation of economy, as first can be based on a principle of non-interference of the state in economic life (known principle of economic liberalism laisser faire - laisser passer). In modern conditions the non-interference of the state in socially - economic processes is impossible. Disputes about necessity of state regulation of economy, and about its scales, forms and intensity are conducted for a long time. Therefore terms \" state regulation of economy \" and \" state economic politics \" are presently identical.
The objective opportunity of state regulation occurs with the achievement of the certain level of economic development, concentration of manufacture and capital. The necessity of transforming this opportunity into the validity consists in increase of problems, difficulties.
In modern conditions the state regulation of economy is a component of reproduction. It solves various tasks: for example, stimulation of economic growth, regulation of employment, encouragement of progressive shifts in branch and regional structure, support of export. The concrete directions, forms, scales of state regulation of economy are defined by character and acuteness of economic and social problems in this or that country in the concrete period.
For understanding of the mechanism of state regulation of economy it is expedient to characterise its subjects, objects, purposes, means, and also stages of its development.
The subjects of economic politics are the carriers and executors of economic interests.
The carriers of economic interests are social groups distinguished from each other on a number of attributes: property, the incomes, on kinds of activity at the similar incomes, on trades, branch and regional interests. They are hired workers and owners of the enterprises, farmers and land proprietors, businessmen managers and the shareholders, civil servants etc. Each of these groups has interests caused by their social economic rule, and also accessory to that or other region, kind of activity.
The representatives of these groups individually express the interests in mass media, on meetings and addressing with the requests, protests, wishes to official bodies responsible for economic and social politics.