Ринкова економіка → Курсова робота
The management of inflation assumes use of the complex measures assisting in a certain measure to combine an insignificant rise in prices with stabilisation of the incomes. The tools of management of process differ depending on character and rate of inflation, features of economic conditions, specificity of an economic mechanism of the different countries.
For antiinflationary regulation two are used such as economic politics:
1) Politics directed on reduction of budget deficiency, restriction of credit expansion, restraint of money issue. In conformity with material the recipes apply targets - regulation of rate of a gain of money weight in the certain limits - according to rate of growth of a total national product
2) Politics of price control and incomes having by the purpose to co-ordinate growth of earnings with a rise in prices. One of means serves index of the incomes determined by a level of a minimum conditions of life or a standard consumer basket and connected with dynamics of an index of the prices. For restraint of the undesirable phenomena the limits of increase or freezing of wages can be established, to be limited distribution of the credits etc.
The influence on inflationary process in conditions of a sharp rise in prices requires special measures. So, for elimination of consequences \" of a petroleum shock \", struck on economy of USA in second half of 70-th years, the registration rates were increased, the requirements to the sizes of reserve funds are amplified, the system of the taxation is stipulated. To lower rates of an inflationary rise in prices it was possible not at once: from 13-14 of % in 1979 they have decreased to 4 % after about three years - in 1982.
As the experience testifies, to stop inflation with the help of one organisational measures rather difficulty if not to tell it is impossible. The structural reform directed on overcoming of disproportion\'s, that has arisen in economy is necessary for this purpose.
The concrete methods of restraint of inflation, \"dose\" and sequence of application of means, attracted for treatment, depend on statement of the correct diagnosis. To put the diagnosis - means, to determine character of inflation, to allocate the factors, basic and connected to them, which makes the growth of inflationary processes. In this case it is not necessary to expect for any ready circuits, and series of extreme measures to finish with inflation. Each inflation is specific and assumes application of such recipes, which correspond to character and depth of \"disease\".
Constant consequence in particular of inflationary process is the unemployment. By virtue of importance of this problem the state accepts the special measures for regulation of the market of work.
The market of work - important sphere economic and social - political life of a society. In the market of work labour receives an estimation cost, the conditions of its employment, including size of wages, working conditions, opportunity of reception of education, professional growth, guarantee of employment etc are defined. The market of work reflects the basic tendencies in changes of employment, its(her) basic structures (branch, vocational, demographic), i.e. in a public division of labour, mobility of a labour, scales and changes of unemployment.
The unemployment is a social economic phenomenon, at which the part of a labour (economically of active population) is not engaged in manufacture of the goods and services. The unemployed alongside with engaged form a labour of the country. In real economic life the unemployment acts as excess of a labour above demand for it(her). To the unemployed, according to statistics of many advanced countries, the persons who have been not engaged on the moment of realisation of interrogation about the status of their employment, undertaking attempts concern to find work within the previous four weeks and registered on labour exchange.
Heavy for the countries of West were 30 years of our century. In USA the rate of unemployment has reached 25%. The diagram showing the dynamics of a rate of unemployment in USA for 100 years is rather curious (1890-1990).
If the share of the unemployed makes 1-3 % in general army of work, not it is accepted to count employment insignificant. Especially dangerous in social sense not employment (absence of work within 40 weeks and more) is long chronic.
It is important to emphasise, that to the unemployed usually carry not only dismissed on the various reasons, but also persons voluntary left works and undertaking attempt to find new. The structure of unemployment for its reasons includes four basic categories of a labour:
1) Lost work as a result of dismissal;
2) Voluntary left work;
3) Come on the market of work after a break;
4) For the first time come on the market of work.
The parity of these categories depends, first of all, on a phase of a business cycle.
The monthly average rate of unemployment within the given year pays off under the formula:
UE*100 of %
Lue = ------------------
Where Lue - level (norm) of unemployment, %; UE - monthly average number of the unemployed; LFc - number of a civil labour.
There are some concepts treating a phenomenon of unemployment. In Mark\'s of the theory it usually connect to process of accumulation of the capital, at which the requirement for alive work (variable capital) is increased slower, than in machines, equipment (constant capital). In western economic science the point of view dominates, according to which the unemployment in the basis reflects an economic feasibility of use of resources, just as, say degree of loading of capacities reflects expediency and efficiency of use of a fixed capital. A so-called natural rate of unemployment reflecting structural disproportion in the market of work (between structure of a supply and demand of a labour on qualification, by demographic and other criteria). To natural unemployment carry also so-called friction unemployment connected mainly to voluntary transition of the workers from one work on another and to seasonal fluctuations in demand for a labour.
In USA in the 60-th years as a natural rate of unemployment the parameter in 4,3 %, in 70-th - already 6,6 %, in 80-th - about 7% was considered. The excess of unemployment above a natural level is determined in the basic cyclic factor, i.e. condition of a conjuncture in the country.
Changes of unemployment is influenced, besides demographic factors, with changes in structure of economy, condition of foreign trade and export of the capital, scales of the military charges, economic and social politics of the state.
Owing to variety of internal regulators of the market of a labour, and also by virtue of social importance of its effective functioning the market of work requires the qualified regulation.