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Slang, youth subcultures and rock music → Дипломна робота


D. Fashion and Youth SubculturesIt was noted that fashion plays a role in all subculture groups and that some are more strongly defined by their fashion, while others take the clothing that relates to the music or sport to define the subculture group. Working class youth tend to place greater emphasis on fashion as it is the one way in which they can show off what they own, whereas middle class youth have other things to show off, such as homes, smart cars, fancy sound systems, etc.

5. The Types of Youth SubculturesSnejina Michailova, in Exploring Subcultural Specificity in Socialist and Postsocialist Organisations, presents the following understanding of the types of subcultures based on their internal logic of development: (a) Stable Subcultures - these are functional and hierarchical and age-based. (b) Developing Subcultures - here there are two types, those that are (i) climbing - their role is becoming more important, and those that are (ii) climbing-down - their significance is being reduced. (c) Counter Cultures - those that confront and contradict the official culture, also called oppositional subcultures.

6. The Variety of Youth SubculturesYouth workers should, through research and observation, seek to identify the various subculture groups within the community in which the youth group operates, to ensure that the group is able to help to meet the needs of the different groups. In Britain in the 1980s the following groups of youth were identified: Casuals, Rastas, Sloans, Goths, Punks and Straights. In South Africa in the 1990s the following youth subculture groups were identified: Socialite, Striver, Traditionalist, Independent, Uninvolved, Careful and Acceptor. In 1995 a market research project discovered that within the Black youth culture there are three main subcultures: the Rappers, Pantsulas and the Italians. While within the White youth subculture only thirty percent of youth identify with a subculture and the subcultures are far more numerous: alternatives, Punks, Goths, Technoids, Metalheads, Homeboys, Yuppies, Hippies and Grunge.

The following subculture groups were identified by students studying at the Baptist Theological College in South Africa: Achievers; Intellectuals; Belongers; Image-Conscious; Very Poor; Models; Heavy Metal Dudes; Rugby Boys; Metalheads; Hippies; Mainstream; Average Teenager; Fashion Fanatic; Intellectuals; Physical; Clubers; Family Centered; Workaholics; Pleasure Seekers; Hobby Fanatics; Religious Freaks; Head Banger; Punk; Home Boys; Skater; Gothics; Yuppies; Trendys; Rappers; Club-Hoppers; Metal Heads; Socialites; Independents; Uninvolved; Carefuls; Socialites - Pantsulas; Mapanga (Punks); Mapantsula; Strivers; Comrades; Preppy; Outrageous; Sexy; Sporty; Gothic/Satanists; Nerds; Intellectual Strivers; Socialites; Jokers; Gangsters; Independents; Traditionalists; Teenyboppers; Trendy Group; Arty Type; Alternative Group; Drug Culture; Gay Culture; Squatters/Vagrants Culture.

In the movie, The Breakfast Club, five teenagers are sent to detention for eight hours on a Saturday at their school (Shermer High School, Illinois). They are:* Brian Johnson, a nerdy computer type, an intellectual who belongs to the Maths club* Clair Standish, a \'princess\' - wealthy kid who is a popular type* Andrew Clark - a sporty type who is in the school wrestling team* Carl - a \'criminal\' type who has had a hard upbringing, a kid with an attitude* Alison Reynolds - a strange girl, who is secretive, uncommunicative and dresses in black

The teacher, Richard Vernon, says that they have to write an essay that explains who they are. During the day in detention, these five young people who would otherwise never together socially begin to find out about each other. They share about their home, their parents, the things that they are able to do, and why they are in detention (they even end up sharing a dagga joint). Very soon they are bonding together. Someone asks the questions about whether they will still be friends when they see each other on Monday. Some admit that they would be ashamed to greet the other person if they are with their friends.

They get Brian to write the essay for the teacher. This is what he writes: Dear Mr Vernon, we accept the fact that we had to sacrifice a whole Saturday in detention, what we did was wrong, but we think you\'re crazy to make us write an essay telling you who we think we are. You see us as you want to see us, in the simplest terms, in the most convenient definitions. But what we found is that each one of us is a brain, and an athlete, and a basket case, a princess and a criminal. Does that answer your question? Sincerely yours, The Breakfast Club.

The movie starts and ends with this letter being read. During the opening sequence the following quote by David Bowie is written across the screen, while the song by Simple Minds, Don\'t You Forget About Me, plays in the background: \"And these children that you spit on as they try to change their world are immune to your consultations. They\'re quite aware of what they\'re going through.\"

In the opening scene where the letter is narrated by Brian, the reading ends with: \"That\'s how we saw ourselves at 7 o\'clock this morning. We were brainwashed.\"

When social workers start to research a subculture group they often find that the members of the subculture group are less that helpful. Consider the following quotes:

\"It is highly unlikely that the members of any of the subcultures described in this book (Reggae, Hipsters, Beats, Teddy Boys, Mods, Skin Heads and Punks) would recognize themselves here. They are still less likely to welcome any efforts on our part to understand them. After all, we the sociologists and interested straights, threaten to kill with kindness the forms which we seek to elucidate...we should hardly be surprised to find our \'sympathetic\' readings of subordinate culture are regarded by members of a subculture with just as much indifference and contempt as the hostile labels imposed by the courts and the press.\" From: Subculture: The Meaning of Style by Dick Hebdige, Routledge, 1967.

A 16-year-old mod from South London said: \"You\'d really hate an adult to understand you. That\'s the only thing you\'ve got over them - the fact that you can mystify and worry them.\" From: Generation X by Hamblett and Deverson, Tandem, 1964.

III. ROCK MUSIC

Main Entry: 1rockPronunciation: \'rkFunction: verbEtymology: Middle English rokken, from Old English roccian; akin to Old High German rucken to cause to moveDate: 12th centurytransitive senses1 a: to move back and forth in or as if in a cradle b: to wash (placer gravel) in a cradle2 a: to cause to sway back and forth rocked by the waves> b (1) : to cause to shake violently (2) : to daze with or as if with a vigorous blow rocked the contender> (3) : to astonish or disturb greatly rocked the community>intransitive senses1: to become moved backward and forward under often violent impact; also: to move gently back and forth2: to move forward at a steady pace; also: to move forward at a high speed rocked through the countryside>3: to sing, dance to, or play rock musicsynonymSHAKE- rock the boat: to do something that disturbs the equilibrium of a situation