ReferatFolder.Org.Ua — Папка українських рефератів!


Slang, youth subcultures and rock music → Дипломна робота

God save the Queenwe mean it manthere is no futurein England\'s dreamingNo futureno future for youno fufure for me

Punks formed a style to disassociate themselves from society. They refused to dress conservatively, wearing clothing such as ripped or torn jeans, t-shirts or button-down shirts with odd and sometimes offensive remarks labeled on them. This clothing was sometimes held together with band patches or safety pins, and the clothing rarely matched; such patterns as plaid and leopard skin was a commonplace. It was not unusual to see a large amount of body piercing and oddly crafted haircuts. The punks dressed (and still do) like this to separate themselves from society norms.Punks believed in separating themselves from society as much as possible; thus the odd dress and/or rude style. Many times these punks are associated with anarchy. Although most all punks were about anarchy, They believed that government was evil, and that a government society could never be perfect; the government was as far from Utopia as one could get. By the early 1980\'s, punk went underground and underwent many changes. These changes were the formation of subcultures.

  • MOD

    Main Entry: 2modFunction: adjectiveEtymology: short for modernDate: 19641: of, relating to, or being the characteristic style of 1960s British youth culture2: HIP, TRENDY

    Source: Webster\'s Revised Unabridged Dictionary

    The Mod was a product of working-class British youth of the mid-sixties. The popular perception of the mod was this: \"Mod\" meant effeminate, stuck up, emulating the middle classes, aspiring to be competitive, snobbish. The old image was one of neatness, of \'coolness\'. The music of the Mod was strictly black in inspiration: rhythm and blues, early soul and Tamla, Jamaican ska. The closest thing to a Mod group was probably the Who - the music neatly caught up the \'pilled up\'. London nightlife of the mod mythology in a series of effective anthems: \'My Generation, \'Can\'t Explain\', \'Anyhow, Anywhere\'. The drug use of Mods was of amphetamines (\'purple hearts\', French blues\', Dexedrine) and pills, uppers and downers, and sleepers. Brake explains why the Mods existed by writing \"for this group there was an attempt to fill a dreary life with the memories of hedonistic consumption during the leisure hours...the insignificance of the work day was made up for in the glamour and fantasy of night life.\" These were working class teenagers whose white-collar office work was a drudgery that, for many, would exist for the rest of their lives. The Mods had their \"own\" style of life, \"own\" music and \"own\" bands. They were different from another fashion victims not only with their clothes (suits, severe ties, long scarfs) but they led a secluded life, they were on bad with the strangers. They spent endless evenings in their \"own\" bars and had a great passion for scooters.


    Main Entry: skinheadPronunciation: \'skin-\"hedFunction: nounDate: circa 19531: a person whose hair is cut very short2: a usually white male belonging to any of various sometimes violent youth gangs whose members have close-shaven hair and often espouse white-supremacist beliefs

    Source: Webster\'s Revised Unabridged Dictionary

    Skinhead origins begin in Britain in the mid to late 1960\'s. Out of a youth cult known as the \"Mods,\" the rougher kids began cutting their hair close, both to aid their fashion and prevent their hair from hindering them in street fights. These working class kids adopted the name \"Skinheads\" to separate themselves from the more dainty and less violent Mods. Huge groups of these explosive youths would meet every Saturday at the football grounds to support their local teams. The die hard support for a group\'s team often lead to skirmishes between opposing supporters, leading to Britain\'s legendary \"football violence.\" When night swept the island, the skinheads would dress in the finest clothes they could afford, and hit the dance halls. It was here they danced to a new sound that was carried to Britain by Jamaican immigrants. This music went by many names including: the ska, jamacian blues, blue beat, rocksteady, and reggae. At these gatherings the skinheads would dance, drink, and laugh with each other and the Jamaican immigrants whom brought the music to Britian.

    During the 1970\'s, there were many changes in the \"typical\" skinhead. For some fashion went from looking smooth in the best clothes you could afford with a blue-collar job, to looking like you were at home, even when you were out. For others the disco craze of the seventies hit hard, resulting in feathered hair, frilly pants, and those ugly seventies shoes. By the late 70\'s the National Front, Britain\'s National Socialist party, had invaded the skinhead movement. Kids were recruited as street soldiers for NF. Since skinheads were already a violent breed, the NF decided that if their young recruits adopted the skinhead appearance, the might benefit from the reputation. It was at this point that racism permeated the skinhead cult without the consent of its members.

    Also by the mid 70\'s punk had put the rebellion back in rock-and-roll, opening a new avenue for street kids to express their frustrations. The shifting mindset brought kids into the skinhead movement as yet another form of expression. By the late 70\'s punk had been invaded by the colleges, and record labels, letting down kids who truly believed in its rebellion. From the streets came a new kind of punk rock, a type which was meant to be true to the working class and the kids on the street. This new music was called \"Oi!\" \"Oi!\" is short for \"Hoi Palloi\", latin for \"Working Class\", and the name stuck. Oi! revived the breath of the working class kids. Because of Oi! music\'s working class roots, the media scorned its messages unlike they had done with the first wave of punk. With the change in music came a new kinds of skinheads, and the gaps between the different types widened. Aside from the National Front\'s skinheads, the movement had been simply a working class struggle, rather than a right-left political struggle. With skinheads forming their own bands, political lines began to be drawn on the basis of right-left and even non-political politics. Politically right groups were often associated with the National Front and had distinct racial messages. Leftist groups looked at the working class struggle through labor politics. Non-political groups often shunned both sides simply because they chose to be political. The Oi! movement consumed most of the 1980\'s and is still alive today.