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Головна Іноземна мова. Англійська, німецька, французька мова → Money and banking (гроші і банківська справа) (к/р)

VOCABULARY NOTES

rare - редкий

lines - штрафы

to measure their value accurately - точно измерить их стоимость

(ценность)

to divide into a wide range of amounts - разделить на много частей

(маленьких или больших)

preciousmetals - драгоценные металлы

gold bullion - золотой слиток

todepositwith - хранить, вкладывать

agoldsmith - золотых дел мастер

worked with gold for jewellery - делал золотые украшения

aguardedvault - охраняемый подвал, хранилищ:

tofetch - приносить, доставать

totransfer - переводить, передавать

once these letters or cheques,

becameacceptableasa wayofpayingforgoods - как только (когда) эти письма, или чеки, стали приниматься при оплате товаров

theirmoneyholdings- деньги, которые им принадлежали, которыми они владели

abankloan - банковская ссуда, заем

a little interest - небольшой процент

thegoldsmithwasshortofgold - у мастера не было достаточно золота

toreckon - полагать, считать

atanyrate - во всяком случае

a transaction - сделка

to owe - быть должным

assets and liabilities - активы и пассивы

the vа1uе of his loan - стоимость ссуды, которую он дал

toequal - равняться, быть равным

thefirmdidn\'treallywantto саrry thatgold around, soitaskedthegoldsmithIf, insteadofactuallytakingthegold, itcouldbegivenadeposit - фирма не хотела держать золото при себе (носить золото с собой) и вместо того, чтобы на самом деле его забрать, попросила мастера принять это золото на хранение в виде вклада

(they) wereworth $110 - их стоимость составляла, они оценивались (имели ценность) в 110 долларов

to write(syn. to draw, to issue, to make out) a cheque - выписать чек

hisassetsfailed -зд. его активы снизились

tofail - (о банках) обанкротиться

initialloan - первоначальная ссуда

reserves - резервы

theamountofgoldthatisimmediatelyavailableinthevault - запасы (количество) золота, которое всегда находится (и может быть немедленно получено) в хранилище банка

depositors\'demands- требования вкладчиков

leavinghimselfwith $90 -оставив себе только 90 долларов

torelyon - рассчитывать, надеяться на что-либо

the reserve ratio • резервная норма

dare - осмеливаться

to make a profit through his interest charges - получить прибыль за счет платежа процентов

What are the risks involved? - Чем он рискует?

topanic (panicked) -пугать, приводить в панику

todoubt - сомневаться

hewasboundtolosesomeofthegold - он непременно должен был потерять часть золота

arunonthebank - натиск вкладчиков на банк

the financial panic - финансовая паника

tofear - опасаться, страшиться

to go bankrupt - обанкротиться

MODERN BANKING

(СОВРЕМЕННАЯ БАНКОВСКАЯ СИСТЕМА)

The goldsmith bankers were an early example of a financial intermediary.

A financial intermediary is an institution that specializes in bringing lenders and borrowers together.

A commercial bank borrows money from the public, crediting them with a deposit. The deposit is a liability of the bank. It is money owed to depositors. In turn the bank lends money to firms, households or governments wishing to borrow.

Banks are not the only financial intermediaries. Insurance companies, pension funds, and building societies also take in money in order to relend it. The crucial feature of banks is that some of their liabilities are used as a means of payment, and are therefore part of the money stock.

Commercial banks are financial intermediaries with a government licence to make loans and issue deposits, including deposits against, which cheques can be written.

Let\'s start by looking at the present-day UK banking system. Although the details vary from country to country, the general principle is much the same everywhere.

In the UK, the commercial banking system comprises about 600 registered banks, the National Girobank operating through post offices, and a dozen trustee saving banks. Much the most important single group is the London clearing banks. The clearing banks are so named because they have a central clearing house for handling payments by cheque.

A clearing system is a set of arrangements in which debts between banks are settled by adding up all the transactions in a given period and paying only the net amounts needed to balance inter-bank accounts.

Suppose you bank with Barclays but visit a supermarket that banks with Lloyds. To pay for your shopping you write a cheque against your deposit at Barclays. The supermarket pays this cheque into its account at Lloyds. In turn, Lloyds presents the cheque to Barclays, which will credit Lloyds\' account at Barclays and debit your account at Barclays by an equivalent amount. Because you purchased goods from a supermarket using a different bank, a transfer of funds between the two banks is required. Crediting or debiting one bank\'s account at another bank is the simplest way to achieve this.

However on the same day someone else is probably writing a cheque on a Lloyds\' deposit account to pay for some stereo equipment from a shop banking with Barclays. The stereo shop pays the cheque into its Barclays\' account, increasing its deposit. Barclays then pays the cheque into its account at Lloyds where this person\'s account is simultaneously debited. Now the transfer flows from Lloyds to Barclays.